Waukulu >> Maphunziro A Zaumoyo >> Kuganizira za mankhwala a ADHD? Kuwongolera kwanu kuchipatala cha ADHD wamkulu

Kuganizira za mankhwala a ADHD? Kuwongolera kwanu kuchipatala cha ADHD wamkulu

Kuganizira za mankhwala a ADHD? Kuwongolera kwanu kuchipatala cha ADHD wamkuluMaphunziro a Zaumoyo

Aliyense ndi ADD pang'ono. Kapena mwambiwo umangopita. Ngati mwakhala mukuvutikabe kuti mukhalebe pantchito, kapena kumaliza ntchito nthawi, mwina mudakayikira ngati izi ndi zoona. Ngati simunapezeke kuti muli ndi vuto la chidwi cha kuchepa kwa mphamvu (ADHD kapena ADD) muli mwana, zingakhale zovuta kudziwa nthawi yomwe kusokonekera kudutsa kosasangalatsa, kukhala chizindikiro cha vuto lazaumoyo. Kupezeka kwa ADHD - komanso chithandizo chamankhwala achikulire a ADHD - ndikofunikira kuti mupitirizebe kugwira ntchito ngati zofuna zanu kapena moyo wanu wayamba kuunjikana.

Kodi ADHD imawoneka bwanji mwa akuluakulu?

ADHD sikuti imangokhala vuto laubwana komanso unyamata. Malinga ndi kafukufuku wofalitsidwa mu American Journal of Psychiatry , kufalikira kwa achikulire omwe ali ndi ADHD pafupifupi 5%. Kuzindikiritsa izi, malinga ndi Centers for Disease Control, kufalikira kwa Autism Spectrum Disorder kuli pakati pa 1% mpaka 2%.



Koma kodi ADHD ndi chiyani kwenikweni? Pulogalamu ya National Institute of Mental Health imalongosola ngati vuto laubongo lomwe limangokhala kusachita chidwi, kutengeka, komanso kusachita chidwi. Zimakhudza ntchito yayikulu yamaubongo, yomwe imabweretsa mavuto ndi kusalinganiza bwino, kukumbukira, kudzidalira, kuthekera kolingalira, kuwongolera nthawi, ndikuwunika tsatanetsatane. Kuchita zinthu mopitirira muyeso kumawonekera kwambiri mwa ana, koma achikulire omwe amadzimva kapena amadzimva kuti ali mkati mopepuka amathanso kukhala ndi gawo losagwira ntchito.



Monga zovuta zambiri zamisala, zizindikilo za ADHD zimakhalapo mosiyanasiyana; mdziko lapansi lazolumikizana ndi makanema azamaola 24, aliyense ali ndi vuto loganizira. A Duane Gordon, Purezidenti wa Msonkhano Wosokonezeka Woperewera (ADDA), nthandala yayikulu kwambiri ya ADHD mdzikolo, adalongosola kusiyana kwake. Kodi zikusokoneza moyo wanu m'njira yomwe simungathe kulipirira? akutero. Chifukwa chake, mwachitsanzo, ngati simungathe kumaliza buku chifukwa chokhala otanganidwa kwambiri kusewera masewera apakanema, Gordon akufotokoza kuti izi sizovuta kwenikweni. Ngati mukufuna-kapena mukufuna-kuti muwerenge bukuli kuti mugwire ntchito ndipo osaganizira kapena njira zina zapadera zomwe zingakuthandizeni, izi zitha kukhala chizindikiro cha china chachikulu kuposa zosokoneza zomwe zimachitika. Gordon amafotokoza ADHD ngati matenda osatha kuwongolera.

ZOKHUDZA : Zikhulupiriro zabodza za 6 ADHD ndi malingaliro olakwika



Kuzindikira wamkulu ADHD

Ngati mukuganiza kuti mwina muli ndi ADHD, Gordon amalimbikitsa kuti mupite kuchipatala kuchokera kwa katswiri wazamisala kapena katswiri wina wazamisala. Chimodzi mwazifukwa zazikulu za izi ndichakuti matenda ambiri amisala (kuphatikiza kukhumudwa, kusinthasintha kwa maganizo, nkhawa, komanso kugona tulo) amatsanzira zizindikiro za ADHD.

Ndikofunika kuti mudziwe bwino kuchokera kwa wodwala kunja kwa dokotala wanu, chifukwa pafupifupi 80% ya anthu omwe ali ndi ADHD ali ndi vuto lachiwiri, atero a Russell Barkley, pulofesa wazachipatala ku Virginia Treatment Center for Children ndi Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center.

Kodi chithandizo cha achikulire omwe ali ndi ADHD ndi chiani?

Dr. Russell ndiwonso wolemba wa Kulamulira ADHD Wamkulu ndipo Munthu Wamkulu Yemwe Mumamukonda Ali ndi ADHD . Akuti pali njira zisanu pamankhwala azachipatala a ADHD omwe amalimbikitsa kwa achikulire omwe akuyesera kudziwa ngati alidi ndi matendawa:



  • Kuwunika
  • Maphunziro
  • Mankhwala
  • Malo ogona
  • Kusinthidwa

Malinga ndi ADDA, pakusankhidwa kwanu , dokotala wanu adzakupatsani kuyezetsa kwathunthu kwakuthupi ndi kwamisala, komanso masikelo osiyanasiyana owerengera. Gawo lotsatira ndi maphunziro. Dr. Barkley akuyerekezera izi ndi matenda a shuga-ndikofunikira kukhala ndi kuphunzira za matenda anu a ADHD chifukwa sakupita ngati mutanyalanyaza. Njira yachitatu — mankhwala a ADHD — ndi ofunikira chifukwa palibe chinthu china chothandiza kuposa mankhwala a ADHD kwa akuluakulu, malinga ndi Dr. Barkley. Ngati tikufanizira mutu ndi mutu, ndiye kuti mankhwala azitha kulowerera m'maganizo mwa atatu, akutero.

Kodi mankhwala abwino kwambiri a ADHD akuluakulu ndi ati?

Mankhwala a ADHD amakhala m'magulu awiri: zolimbikitsa komanso zosalimbikitsa. Nthawi zambiri, odwala amapatsidwa mankhwala opatsa mphamvu chifukwa chonse amaonedwa kuti ndi othandiza kwambiri. Zopanda mphamvu zimagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati mankhwala achiwiri ndipo ngati pali maiki ena odziwika kapena nkhawa yayikulu, zomwe zimalimbikitsa.

Mankhwala othandizira achikulire a ADHD

Ponena za zopatsa mphamvu, Dr. Barkley akuti, alipo awiri okha ndipo akhala zaka makumi angapo: amphetamines ndi methylphenidate. Ndikofunika kuzindikira kuti amphetamines (monga Adderall ) ndi methylphenidate (monga Ritalin ) amagawidwa ndi FDA ngati mankhwala a Ndandanda 2, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti akhoza kukhala osokoneza bongo, akagwiritsidwa ntchito molakwika, koma sayenera kukhala yayitali malinga ngati atengedwa monga momwe adanenera. Kusintha kwa zinthu, kusowa tulo, ndi kuonda ndi zina mwa zotsatira zoyipa za mankhwala opatsa mphamvu.



Monga momwe Dr. Barkley adanenera, mitundu iwiri iyi ya zolimbikitsa yakhalapo kwazaka zambiri, koma chatsopano ndi njira ziti zoperekera. M'mbuyomu, zopatsa mphamvu zinali ndi theka la moyo, zomwe zimafuna kuti odwala azimwa mankhwala maola atatu kapena atatu aliwonse kuti akhale ndi mphamvu. Tsopano, chilimbikitso chilichonse cha ADHD chokhala ndi -XR, -LR, kapena -SR kumapeto kwa dzina lake chikuwonetsa nthawi yotulutsidwa, kulola kuti mankhwalawa atenge nthawi yayitali m'magazi a wodwalayo osaphwanyidwa mwachangu mthupi.

Palinso mankhwala otchedwa Konsati , yomwe ili ndi njira yapadera yoperekera mankhwala yomwe imalola kuti methylphenidate imasulidwe kwa ola la 12. Pomaliza, Daytrana-yomwe imakhalanso ndi methylphenidate-imatha kuvalidwa pakhungu kudzera pachigamba. Izi nthawi zambiri zimaperekedwa kwa odwala omwe amakumana ndi zovuta kumwa mankhwala kangapo patsiku.



Mankhwala osalimbikitsa a ADHD akuluakulu

Mankhwala osalimbikitsa omwe amaperekedwa kwa ADHD amagwira ntchito pafupifupi 75% ya anthu, Dr. Barkley akuti, koma sali olimba kapena othandiza. Kusiyanitsa ndikuti mankhwalawa samangokhala osokoneza bongo, ndipo amakhala abwinoko kwa odwala omwe ali ndi mbiri yogwiritsa ntchito mankhwala osokoneza bongo, nkhawa, kapena matenda amiseche. Mankhwala oyamba a atomoxetine, omwe amadziwikanso kuti Strattera , imaperekedwa kwa ana ndi akulu omwe, koma malinga ndi chizindikiro cha FDA, zifukwa zenizeni zogwirira ntchito zake sizikudziwika .

Kalasi yachiwiri ya osapatsa mphamvu anali mankhwala oopsa - a kuthamanga kwa magazi - omwe adapezeka kuti ali ndi zida zama psychoactive. Awiri omwe alipo alipo clonidine ( Kapvay ) ndi guanfacine ( Chidziwitso ). Kapvay adavomerezedwa ndi FDA kokha kuchiza ADHD mwa ana ndi achinyamata . Mofananamo, Chidziwitso imavomerezedwanso ndi FDA ya ana ndi achinyamata, koma mitundu iwiri yonse ya mankhwala imagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati cholembedwa ndi akulu pachifukwa chomwecho. Awa ndi mankhwala achitatu osankha, Barkley adati, chifukwa amachepetsa kuthamanga kwa magazi, komwe, ngati muli ndi vuto lotsika magazi, sichinthu chabwino.



Chithandizo china chachikulire cha ADHD

Malo ogona achikulire omwe ali ndi ADHD

Gawo lachinayi la njira yomwe Dr. Barkley amayendera kuchipatala cha ADHD ndi malo ogona, omwe amafotokoza kuti kuphunzira kukonza malo okhala pafupi nanu - mwina mothandizidwa ndi mphunzitsi wa ADHD - kuti muchepetse vuto lanu. Makochi a ADHD amadziwika ndi International Coach Federation komanso Professional Association for ADHD Makochi Ndani angathandize pamavuto akulu akulu omwe mungakumane nawo. Njira zina zothanirana ndi izi:

  • Kutenga mpira wopanikizika kumisonkhano
  • Kupanga malo azolimbitsa thupi nthawi zonse
  • Chidziwitso chamakhalidwe ndi njira zoganizira
  • Kugona mokwanira

Maphunziro aubongo kwa achikulire omwe ali ndi ADHD

Gawo lachisanu, komaliza ndi kusintha kwa zizindikilo zanu, mwina kudzera mu pulogalamu yophunzitsa ubongo monga Lumosity, kapena kusinkhasinkha pafupipafupi. Dr. Barkley adanenetsa kuti ngakhale awa ndi mankhwala abwino kutsatira, ali ndi zotsatira zabwino kwambiri, ndichifukwa chake adatchulidwa komaliza.



Koposa zonse, musayese kukambirana ulendowu kuti mupeze matenda okha. Kupeza gulu loyenera kuti likuthandizireni, kuchokera kwa akatswiri azaumoyo komanso achikulire anzanu omwe ali ndi ADHD mpaka okondedwa anu komanso abale anu, atenga mbali yayitali kukuthandizani kuti musamakhale nokha komanso kuti musankhe bwino.